Friday, June 26, 2020
Ã The issue of mass incarceration due to drug-related crimes is a highly debated topic, especially in the United States of America because of the prevailing statistics. Today, the U.S. has 5% of the worlds total population, but at least 25% of this populace is incarcerated (Drug Policy Alliance, 2018). Indeed, the U.S. is the country that imprisons most people globally. While the rate of incarceration in the country is a problem, the debate delves further into the issue of race because people of color, particularly men; have an unusually high rate of incarceration; a statistic that is associated with the misguided laws on the war on drugs accompanied with harsh sentences. Although reports indicate that the frequency of drug use and sales among all races is relatively the same, there is a huge disparity in the criminalization of the users, whereby blacks and Latinos are more likely to be incarcerated or reprimanded than their white counterparts. Therefore, it is difficult to term the trend as a mere coincidence because it appears as if it is systematic marginalization on these minority groups. Currently, African American men have a twenty-nine percent chance of going to prison while their Latino male counterparts have a sixteen percent chance and their white counterparts have a four percent chance. Although whites have made up majority of the population up until recent years, blacks have outweighed numbers in the prison system as the black male comprises about 55% of persons convicted for drug possession, 35% of those detained for drug possession, and 74% of individuals seized for drug possession (Alexander West, 2012). Moreover, the skewed drug enforcement pattern continues to have a catastrophic effect on these minority groups, particularly African American men. Between the age of 20-29, one in three African Americans are presently either on probation, prison, or parole (Alexander West, 2012). Hence, one in every five African American men have been convicted of a felony before. It is also estimated that within seven states, about eighty to ninety percent of the populat ion serving time for drugs are blacks. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Likewise, the statistics for Latinos is also alarming. It was discovered that even though Latinos are around twelve percent of the population and sell and use drugs less than Caucasians, they represented 46% of those charged in 1999 for any federal drug transgression. As time has progressed, people of color have continued to be the primary focus of anti-drug guidelines and rhetoric. At the start of the 20th century, drug lords managed to paint a picture that African Americans were highly involved in the drug business, as king-pins and dope dealers. In 1930, nearly sixteen states had managed to deny the growing of marijuana since the main target was the Mexican society who had flooded the job market in the U.S. (Alexander West, 2012). The formation of the Boggs Act ensured that there were stringent measures in a response to opium that was being ferried from Asia. Since New York wanted to attain stricter drug laws, they enacted the Rockefeller drug legislation and after a quarter century, which ninety-four percent of the people who had been apprehended were Latino and African Americans. By the year 1980, the relationship between crime, drugs, and minorities had been firmly cemented in the War on Drugs that was revamped by Regans hysteria about crack (Alexander West, 2012). In addition, the media hysteria concerning the unconfirmed crack widespread amid African Americans prompted the passing of the draconian minimum sentencing of legislation on crack cocaine by president Bill Clinton. Even though this drug had been linked to mostly white users, these issues managed to remain light when it came to prosecution and harsh sentencing on white counterparts. Ultimately, race allowed for society to evade the trade-off betw een societies demand to get tough on crime and its demand to retain civil rights, through unequal implementation of the law; which allowed for blacks to be targeted and marginalized. Additionally, the war on drugs was never focused on rooting out violent offenders or drug kingpins. However, it is important to note that federal funding flows to agencies that focus on prioritizing private institutions, which dramatically increase the number of drug arrest on minority groups. Therefore, it is clearly evident that the reward of the war was offered to institutions that retained the highest incarceration rates. Besides, the federal drug forfeiture legislation permits local and state enforcement agencies to keep eighty-percent of the money, homes, and cars that are seized from the drug suspects, allowing law enforcement to directly profit in the drug market. Therefore, it has been predicted that people of color are more likely to be apprehended for non-violent and minor drug offenses. In 2005, four out of five drug related cases were pertaining to possession charges, while just one out of five was about sales (Alexander West, 2012). Furthermore, it was apparent that mo st people of color who were arrested and sentenced to state prison had no history of violence. In the 1990s, about eighty-percent of the increase in drug arrest were related to marijuana, a drug that was considered to be less harmful than tobacco or alcohol. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Primarily, the effects of the systematic marginalization of race in mass incarceration were severe, and detrimental to the black communities as many of their head-of-household and providers were being hauled off to jail and prison for very long sentences. One of the largest effects of mass incarceration was and still is the destruction of families. For example, statistics indicate that an estimated 2.7 million children are growing up in homes with one or both parents in prison (Drug Policy Alliance, 2018). Furthermore, two-thirds of these parents are imprisoned for offenses that are not related to violence, with a large percentage of these guardians being incarcerated for the violations of drug laws. A study comparison of black, Latinos, and white parents who are imprisoned revealed that 1 in 9 African American children (11.4%), 1 in 28 Hispanic children (3.5%), and 1 in 57 white children (1.8%) in the United States have an incarcerated parent. (Drug Policy Alliance, 2018). It is unfortunate that children suffer the consequences of a system that depicts inequality, affecting the quality of life and the sense of touch and belonging that a child needs from having both parents present. Thus, it is necessary that these consequences are discussed and used to support the debate on the need to create equality within the justice system or at the very least prevent discriminatory treatment of individuals based on race or the color of their skin. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Moreover, the consequences of mass incarceration extend to the collateral factors that are associated with an extended form of punishment as a directive of the criminal justice system. Notably, incarcerated individuals are denied child custody, they lose their voting rights, they can barely attain any form of employment due to their criminal record. They do not have the credibility to access any loans, they are denied licensing capabilities to start-up their businesses, and they do not have the privilege of public housing or government benefits. All these restrictions lead to frustrations among convicted criminals even after they have finished their time because they ultimately have been demoted to a second-class status in society. In fact, these restrictions account for the vicious cycle of crime whereby the same people who have completed their time are very likely to engage in criminal activities, leading to more offenses and being incarcerated yet agai n. It has been noted that One in thirteen African Americans of voting age is disenfranchised due to a felony conviction, a rate four times greater than that of non-Black people. (Drug Policy Alliance, 2018) This is merely a result of all of the restrictions and barriers that are placed upon Felons including the label of being a felon which ultimately hinders these individuals in all aspects of life.Ã Furthermore, these restrictions downgrade millions of U.S. citizens to a lower socioeconomic status, usually affecting majority people of color. Again, it is an affirmation that mass incarceration may have been a result of government policy, however; these policies merely sustained its notoriety through the marginalization of a race and institutionalized racism. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Evidently, the available statistics support the ideology that there is systematic marginalization on African Americans through the war on drugs and mass incarceration. The trend is upsetting because these drug laws were and still are unrealistic. The criminal justice system is structured in such a manner that African Americans are continuously targeted which keeps them disenfranchised and disadvantage. Hence, they suffer from longer and heavier sentencing in drug-related offenses. Moreover, federal agencies are more focused on the number of arrests and convictions they make as opposed to targeting the real issue and not the drug or the user itself. In this entire situation, families are broken and the socioeconomic effects are long-lasting, condemning the minority group to lower-class living. Therefore, it is important for the opposers of this debate to accept that actual action needs to be taken to address the problem of marginalization in the criminal justice system and what it has ultimately done to the African American community. In America, the land of the free, regardless of opinions, the fact remains that every person, whether white or black deserves an equal treatment and opportunity.
Monday, June 1, 2020
It is no surprise that the function of men and women in a society plays a huge role in the pieces of literature that would arise during a specific time. The roles of both men and women in the 18th century, for example, may even align with those in the next century. For instance, both Eliza HaywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Fantomina: Love in a Maze (1735) and Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein (1818) depict women as nothing more than objects. In HaywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s novella, Fantomina is described as a Ã¢â¬Å"VictoryÃ¢â¬ after she is assaulted by Beauplaisir whereas in ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Elizabeth is introduced, after the death of Caroline, as a Ã¢â¬Å"pretty presentÃ¢â¬ for Victor. However, because they were written a century apart, the two texts also demonstrate a difference in response to the roles that were upheld in each of the societies the texts took place in. Both Haywood and Shelley critique the traditional roles of women during their time period but while Fantomina challenges the tra ditional roles of a woman, the women of Frankenstein uphold them. One of the ways that Fantomina challenges the role of a woman in British society is by changing her appearance from a lady of higher social standing to a woman of lower standing a prostitute. When Haywood states that there is no authority figure nor anyone Fantomina knew in town to whom she is accountable, she is suggesting that a lady should not be acting in such a manner, but the protagonist is still able to get away with it (Haywood 36). At the Playhouse, she resides in a gallery box at the theater, which is a key symbol of wealth and class, but as a prostitute, Fantomina smoothly enters the Pit, where the prostitutes mingled with the men, in a Ã¢â¬Å"free and unrestrainÃ¢â¬â¢d MannerÃ¢â¬ (Haywood 36). It is here that Haywood reveals the impact of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and clothes on their social status. When the protagonist changes both her behavior and clothes, she is no longer a Ã¢â¬Å"Lady,Ã¢â¬ but a Ã¢â¬Å"Woman.Ã¢â¬ Yet with the downgrade of her status, she is ab le to experience a new sense of freedom, where she also mingles with men. One of the men Fantomina converses with is Beauplaisir and by doing so, she defies the societal restriction of women pursuing men, while also carrying out long sojourns outside of her town. Whereas a woman of low birth possessed the freedom of interacting with any man she wished, a lady did not. Fantomina had spoken to Beauplaisir before, but Ã¢â¬Å"then her Quality and reputed Virtue,Ã¢â¬ or in other words, her virtuous status, kept her from making advances (Haywood 36). Because she is unrecognizable now, Fantomina finds pleasure in freely conversing with him. However, if an authority figure or anyone Fantomina knew were around, she would not have attempted to pursue Beauplaisir at the Playhouse as herself. Furthermore, as her feelings for him strengthen, Fantomina goes to great lengths to win the affection of Beauplaisir, especially embarking on Ã¢â¬Å"whimsical AdventuresÃ¢â¬ on the false pretence of visiting a relative in the country (Haywood 52). The protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s severely virtuous mother abruptly arrives upon hearing rumors about her daughter to constrain the vast deal of freedom that she was exploiting. This suggests that British women were restricted from traveling outside of their town and were to be kept in check of taboo behavior. Lastly, Fantomina challenges the societal expectation of unmarried womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality as being a restrained quality. Under her disguises as Fantomina, Incognita, and Celia, the protagonist engages in intercourse, which she refers to as her Ã¢â¬Å"VirtueÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Honor,Ã¢â¬ multiple times with Beauplaisir (Haywood 38). While unmarried men in 18th century Britain exercised their freedom to have intercourse before marriage, women were expected to remain virgins until marriage, which is evident in FantominaÃ¢â¬â¢s deliberate plan in hiding her charades for the security of her reputation (Haywood 40). If women had done oth erwise, they were unfit to be married because they would have Ã¢â¬Å"nothing left to giveÃ¢â¬ to their husbands (Haywood 39). By having intercourse before marriage, the protagonist establishes a new sense of freedom that she will use as a way to manipulate Beauplaisir while she is Incognita. Typically, a man would have more power than a woman but in this case, the protagonist uses her sexuality as a way to gain some control over him. Incognita had him Ã¢â¬Å"always raving, wild, impatient, longing, dyingÃ¢â¬ and this newfound power that the protagonist now possessed differed from the stereotypical image of power between men and women (Haywood 50). Frankenstein reveals that it was a crucial responsibility for women to provide happiness to their male counterparts. Elizabeth adheres to this norm by believing that it is the Ã¢â¬Å"most imperious dutyÃ¢â¬ to deliver happiness to her uncles, cousins and Victor and she is Ã¢â¬Å"determined to fulfill her duties with the greatest exactness,Ã¢â¬ even after the death of her aunt (Shelley 26). ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s usage of the words Ã¢â¬Å"imperiousÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"greatest exactnessÃ¢â¬ suggest that ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s priority was not to render happiness to herself, but to the men in her life. It also shows that women were expected to be forgetful of themselves, especially their own emotions, in respect to men. In order to fulfill her duties, Elizabeth was expected to sweep her feelings under the rug, as if they were insignificant and insubstantial. Another instance where Elizabeth demonstrates her dedication to providing happiness to her male counterparts is when she writes to V ictor, even after suspecting him of cheating: Ã¢â¬Å"Be happy, my friend; and if you obey me in this one request, remain satisfied that nothing on earth will have the power to interrupt my tranquilityÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 135). The word Ã¢â¬ËcheatingÃ¢â¬â¢ can be defined as acquiring feelings for a person while being in a commitment to another. Elizabeth displays a lack of anger or sadness when she accuses Victor of loving and seeing another while committed to her and urges him to seek his own happiness. This would bring Elizabeth Ã¢â¬Å"tranquilityÃ¢â¬ and when she states that nothing in the world would be able to ruin her tranquility, Elizabeth insinuates that VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness is the source of her everlasting happiness. Thus, Shelley indicates that the happiness of women was dependent upon the happiness of men. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose of ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s character in the novel was to accentuate the effects of VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s transgressive science, which ultimately le ads to her death. While Elizabeth is portrayed as merely collateral damage in a fight between Victor and his creature, Margaret Saville demonstrates no significance to any of the major characters and is only included for the enhancement of the plot. Women were presented as passive figures whose presence, or lack thereof, emphasized the dominance of a male voice. Although Shelley introduces Margaret as the very first character in the novel, she provides little to no information regarding MargaretÃ¢â¬â¢s personal life even though she is whom WaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s letters are directed towards. Additionally, she is not even granted a voice because she only reads the letters and never writes back even when Walton informs her of the harsh weather, which could put his life in danger, thus proving she is passive. For instance, Walton writes to his sister, Ã¢â¬Å"You will not hear of my destruction, and you will anxiously await my returnÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 153). As a result, the readers are left to infer how Margaret must feel knowing that her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s life is at risk. On top of that, the reader must also infer whether Margaret would condemn or pardon VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s transgressive and harmful experiment. Hence, she is merely an idea because in addition to being written as a figure of moral support for Walton because of his loneliness, Shelley does not confirm whether or not Margaret is still alive. Not only was Elizabeth portrayed as collateral damage in the fight between Victor and his creature, but also Justine. JustineÃ¢â¬â¢s character revealed that women were submissive and held no power in their male dominated societies. After being falsely accused of murdering William, Justine confesses to the court, Ã¢â¬Å"I did confess; but I confessed a lie. I confessed, that I might obtain absolution; but now that falsehood lies heavier at my heart than all my other sinsever since I was condemned, my confessor has besieged me, he threatened and menaced, until I almost bega n to think that I was the monster that he said I wasÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Shelley 58). Justine is seen as an object of undeserving blame and despite knowing that the accusations brought upon her are false, she admits to murdering William. Justine falls as victim to a corrupt justice system and an unforgiving priest who manipulates her into believing that she is the monster he said she was. This implies that women are easy to control and are scapegoats to the wrongdoings of men. Furthermore, no one but Elizabeth made an effort to continue the investigation but, even ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s stance against the accusations proved no significance in turning the execution over. As Anne K. Mellor states in Ã¢â¬Å"Possessing Nature: The Female in Frankenstein,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"the impassioned defense she gives of Justine arouses public approbationbut does nothing to help Justine,Ã¢â¬ (357). However, Victor was the only one who could prove her innocence. He was the one who possessed the power to reveal who the real killer was yet, he chose not to for the protection of himself. Therefore, it is evident who held the power in VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s and ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship. In both Fantomina: Love in a Maze and Frankenstein, women were seen as nothing more than objects of love and purity whose ultimate faith was marriage. While Fantomina challenged the traditional roles of women, Elizabeth, Margaret and Justine adhered to those in their society. HaywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s and ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s texts succeeded in exposing the traditional roles of women during the time they were written in.
Monday, May 18, 2020
The Hero and the Saint: Paul and Augustine The idea of the hero in Greco-Roman culture was integrated into the idea of the saint (in the process of conversion and totalization) by way of Christianitys adoption of and ancestry in the Greco-Roman culture. As Professor Ambrosio indicates, The need and the search for meaning is shared by all human beings (Hero or Saint Saul of Tarsus). Thus, it is no surprise to find that a pagan Greco-Roman title is applicable to a Christian whose virtue is viewed as greater than that of ordinary men just as the hero is viewed as greater (in fame, bravery, strength) than ordinary men. The fact that two of early Christianitys most heroic figures (St. Paul and St. Augustine) were Roman makes this integration even less surprising. This paper will discuss the way in which the hero is integrated into the idea of the saint by comparing Saul of Tarsus with Augustine of Hippo two men who underwent a conversion and rose to heroic or saintly heights in terms of Christian virtue. Professor Ambrosio asserts that Sauls vision establishes a direct connection between Pauls question, Who are you, Lord? and Jesus as the one who is being persecuted in the person of those who have faith in Him (Hero or Saint Saul of Tarsus). This direct connection is what ultimately helps transform Saul into Paul a new man. Christianity, in other words, is the religion of throwing off the old man and putting on the new. The new, of course, is Christ which is whyShow MoreRelatedSecular Sanctity and the Meaning of Life3110 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The Meaning of Life Introduction The secular saint, like the hero saint, is motivated by love. While Augustine tells us that the hero saint is moved by love for God, the secular saint as the humanist thinkers of our modern age assert is moved by love for self and/or fellow man. Thus, love appears to be at the heart of the meaning of life. Throughout history love has been given many different names. For the pagan Greeks, there was eros (erotic or sexual love), agape (spiritual love), and phileosRead MoreSt.Jerome Essay4572 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesJeromes Vulgate, all Latin translations of theÃ Old TestamentÃ were based on the Septuagint not the Hebrew. Jeromes decision to use a Hebrew text instead of the previous translated Septuagint went against the advice of most other Christians, includingÃ Augustine, who thought the Septuagint inspired. Modern scholarship, however, has cast doubts on the actual quality of Jeromes Hebrew knowledge. Many modern scholars believe that the GreekHexaplaÃ is the main source for Jeromes iuxta Hebraeos translationRead MoreDr Martin Luther King Jrs Influence on the Social and Political Culture of the Country2658 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesIn the letter, Kings arguments are air tight. King refers to Christian saints like Augustine to prove his case and highlight the un-Christian nature of racism. King also compares himself to Paul, who is widely credited with the creation of the religion of Christianity (as opposed to Christs own reformulation of Gods spiritual covenant with humanity). In the letter from Birmingham jail, King writes, just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to theRead MoreVan Gogh And His Works2225 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesto Arles in 1888, where he wanted to start a colony of artists who would all live and create together (Department of European Paintings). This community did not actually come together because no one went to work with van Gogh. However, VincentÃ¢â¬â¢s hero Paul Gauguin did visit a nd work with him. When van Gogh heard of this news, he became excited and optimistic. In preparation for GauguinÃ¢â¬â¢s visit, he created a series of bright yellow sunflower paintings. It was his intention to decorate GauguinÃ¢â¬â¢s roomRead MoreAwareness6564 Words Ã |Ã 27 PagesScientific Research Fund (FNRS) and Ph.D. candidate at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. 2 Paul Ricoeur, Memory, History, Forgetting, transl. Kathleen Blamey and David Pellauer (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2004) pp. 96-120. 1 subjective experience and memories belong to the individual, helping to build identity by differentiating this individual from others. As Augustine pointed out, the notion of reflexivity thus lies at the root of memory.3 The development of thisRead MoreExistentialism vs Essentialism23287 Words Ã |Ã 94 Pages The existentialists, however, are aware of the necessity of their independance. They may still visit their parents, but not with such routine or need. As British writerÃ Anita BrooknerÃ put it: * Existentialism is about being a saint without God; being your own hero, without all the sanction and support of religion or society. * Existentialism can exist within and outside of religious context because it focuses on the individual within the concepts of human nature and the struggle for lifeRead Moresecond sex Essay13771 Words Ã |Ã 56 Pagesof their own; and they have no such solidarity of work and interest as that of the proletariat. They are not even promiscuously herded together in the way that creates community feeling among the American Negroes, the ghetto Jews, the workers of Saint-Denis, or the factory hands of Renault. They live dispersed among the males, attached through residence, housework, economic condition, and social standing, to certain men ? fathers or husbands ? more firmly than they are to other women. If theyRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 Pagesdepend onÃ¢â¬âare contingent onÃ¢â¬â characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates. Another milestone in management theory was the development of contingency theory in the 1960s by Tom Burns and G. M. Stalker in Britain and Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch in the United States.43 The crucial message of contingency theory is that there is no one best way to organize: The organizational structures and the control systems that managers choose depend onÃ¢â¬âare contingent onÃ¢â¬âcharacteristics
Saturday, May 16, 2020
The term descriptive grammar refers to an objective, nonjudgmental description of the grammatical constructions in a language. Its an examination of how a language is actually being used, in writing and in speech. Linguists who specialize in descriptive grammar examine the principles and patterns that underlie the use of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. In that respect, the adjective descriptive is a bit misleading as descriptive grammar provides an analysis and explanation of a languages grammar, not simply a description of it. How Experts Define Descriptive Grammar Descriptive grammarsÃ do not give advice: They detail the ways in whichÃ native speakersÃ use their language. A descriptive grammar is a survey of a language. For any living language, a descriptive grammar from one century will differ from a descriptive grammar of the next century because the language will have changed.Ã¢â¬âFrom In An Introduction to Language by Kirk Hazen Descriptive grammar is the basis forÃ dictionaries, which record changes inÃ vocabularyÃ andÃ usage, and for the field ofÃ linguistics, which aims at describing languages and investigating the nature of language.Ã¢â¬âFrom Bad Language by Edwin L. Battistella Contrasting Descriptive and Prescriptive Grammar Descriptive grammar is more a study in the why and how of language, while prescriptiveÃ grammar deals with the strict rules of right and wrong required for language to be considered grammatically correct.Ã Prescriptive grammariansÃ¢â¬âsuch as most editors of nonfiction and teachersÃ¢â¬âdo their darndest to enforce the rules of Ã¢â¬Å"correctÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"incorrectÃ¢â¬ usage. Says author Donald G. Ellis, All languages adhere to syntactical rules of one sort or another, but the rigidity of these rules is greater in some languages. It is very important to distinguish between the syntactical rules that govern a language and the rules that a culture imposes on its language. He explains that this is the distinction between descriptive and prescriptive grammar. Descriptive grammars are essentially scientific theories that attempt to explain how language works. Ellis admits that human beings were using language in a variety of forms long before there were linguists using descriptive grammar around to formulate any rules about how or why they were speaking as they did. On the other hand, he likens prescriptive grammarians to the stereotypical uptight high school English teachers who prescribe, like medicine for what ails you, how you ought to speak.Ã Examples of Descriptive and Prescriptive Grammar To illustrate the difference between descriptive and prescriptive grammar, lets look at the sentence: I aint going nowhere. Now, to a descriptive grammarian, theres nothing wrong with the sentence because its being spoken by someone who is using the language to construct a phrase that has meaning for someone else who speaks the same language. To a prescriptive grammarian, however, that sentence is a virtual house of horrors. First, it contains the word aint, which strictly speaking (and we must be strict if were prescriptive) is slang. So, although youll find aint in the dictionary, as the adage says, Aint aint a word. The sentence also contains a double negative (aint and nowhere) which just compounds the atrocity. Simply having the wordÃ aintÃ in the dictionary is a further illustration of the difference between the two types of grammar. Descriptive grammar notes the words use in the language, pronunciation, meaning, and even etymologyÃ¢â¬âwithout judgment, but in prescriptive grammar, the use of aint is just plain wrongÃ¢â¬âespecially in formal speaking or writing. Would a descriptive grammarian ever say something was ungrammatical? Yes. If someone utters a sentence using words or phrases or construction that as a native speaker they would never even think of putting together. For instance, a native English speaker wouldnt start a sentence with two query wordsÃ¢â¬âas in, Who where are you going?Ã¢â¬âbecause the result would be unintelligible as well as ungrammatical. Its one case in which the descriptive and prescriptive grammarians would actually agree. Sources Hazen, Kirk. An Introduction to Language. John Wiley, 2015Battistella, Edwin L. Bad Language: Are Some Words Better than Others? Oxford University Press,Ã Aug 25, 2005Ellis, Donald G. From Language to Communication. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Title- WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s lurking beside the glaring fire? 1895- England A loud thud came from the prison cell next to me. As I walked closer, I saw a large, muscular man run out of his cell, carrying a pistol. I ran to my coworker, who was laying on the ground, covering his lower abdomen. He moved his hand, and there I saw, two bullet holes, lodged through the skin and bones. I was frozen. Ã¢â¬Å"Should I help my comrade, or should I go after the criminal?Ã¢â¬ This one thought came running through my brain. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t decide. By the time I made up my mind, the criminal was probably half- way across the countryside. I ran to my fallen comrade. His body was as cold as ice, with blood splattered across his stomach. I sat there, feeling sorrowful for my lostÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦About half the logs were starting to deteriorate, or had been deteriorating for a while now. I walked onto the lowest step, and sluggishly walked onto the front porch. There sat two wooden rocking chairs, with piles of dust laying across the surfaces. I walked towards the door, as my heart started pumping louder than IÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever heard it pump before. I grabbed the handle, forgetting to knock. It was unlocked, (which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite surprise me.) The door slowly opened, with a long, eerie creak. As I walked forward, a thought of doubt came racing through my mind. I ignored my warning, and walked into the wooden cabin. The room I walked into was pitch black. I moved my hands across every surface, looking for a light of some sort. There I found a small, metal lantern. I picked it up, and turned it on. A Yellow glow came from the lantern. Not enough light to see everything around me, but enough light to see where I was heading to. I strolled further into the cabin. While walking, I could hear faint, yet noticeable whispers behind me. I ignored these whispers, trying to think of any reasonable cause of this sound. The farther I walked, the louder the whispers became. Soon enough, the whispers turned into every cry of displeasure and anger. The feelings of being perplexed and muddled soon turned into the feelings of fear and terror. I started scampering across the wooden floor, hearing the loud whispers behind me become more violent and unbearable. InShow MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Short Stories:Ã Ã Characteristics Ã¢â¬ ¢ShortÃ - Can usually be read in one sitting. Ã¢â¬ ¢Concise:Ã Ã Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.Ã Ã This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot Ã¢â¬ ¢Usually tries to leave behind aÃ single impressionÃ or effect.Ã Ã Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. Ã¢â¬ ¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringingÃ personal experiencesÃ andÃ prior knowledgeÃ to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. AÃ short storyÃ like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), Ã¢â¬Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.Ã¢â¬ In the Cambridge Advanced LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. The short story theme I am going conduct on is Ã¢â¬Å"The Secret Life of Walter MittyÃ¢â¬â¢ by James Thurber (1973). In this short story the literary elements being used is plot and symbols and the theme being full of distractions and disruption. The narrator is giving a third person point of view in sharing the thoughts of the characters. Walter Mitty the daydreamer is very humorous in the different plots of his dr ifting off. In the start of the story the plot, symbols,Read MoreShort Stories1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe themes of short stories are often relevant to real life? To what extent do you agree with this view? In the short stories Ã¢â¬Å"Miss BrillÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Frau Brechenmacher attends a weddingÃ¢â¬ written by Katherine Mansfield, the themes which are relevant to real life in Miss Brill are isolation and appearance versus reality. Likewise Frau Brechenmacher suffers through isolation throughout the story and also male dominance is one of the major themes that are highlighted in the story. These themes areRead MoreShort Story and People1473 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Title: Story Of An Hour Author: Kate Chopin I. On The Elements / Literary Concepts The short story Story Of An Hour is all about the series of emotions that the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard showed to the readers. With the kind of plot of this short story, it actually refers to the moments that Mrs. Mallard knew that all this time, her husband was alive. For the symbol, I like the title of this short story because it actually symbolizes the time where Mrs. Mallard died with joy. 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Many recent college graduates have faced record levels of unemployment. This situation has lead people to question what they value about higher education. Some high school students and their parents are wondering if a college education is worth the cost. Others, however, believe that a college prepares students for more than just a job or career. Many people then present the counter argument that people like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Mark Zuckerberg did not have a college degree, but unlike them most people are not geniuses and do not have the same entrepreneurial opportunities available to them, let alone the innovative ideas and proper timing. A college education is worth the cost because it is a requirement for many jobs, college graduates make substantially more than high school graduates, and college provides more opportunities for personal growth and networking. Many jobs recently are requiring people to have at least a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree to even consider someone for a position. Now jobs are beginning to want people who have a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree instead; for example Ã¢â¬Å"between 1973 and 2008, the share of jobs in the U.S. economy which required postsecondary education increased from 28 percent to 59 percent. According to our projections, the future promises more of the same. The share of postsecondary jobs will increase from 59 to 63 percent over the next decadeÃ¢â¬ (Carnevale, pg 1). With that being said it seems more important know than ever for people to have a collegeShow MoreRelatedIs A College Education Worth The Cost?1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIs a College Education Worth the Cost? Have you ever just stopped to think about what it must be like to be Ã¢â¬Å"qualifiedÃ¢â¬ for a job yet be unemployed and homeless? 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Financially secured people not only are able to afford extracurricular activities for their kids, such as sports, music lessons, art, dancing etcRead MoreIs College Education Worth The Cost For Students?1385 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe value of a college education is a topic that strikes debates across the nation. People wonder if the debt and time will be worth in helping them obtain a career to pay off the debt and generate a larger income for themselves than if they did not have a four-plus year college degree. My whole life, I have always valued a college education. At the same time, I know that the higher education is not as important to others. I never understood why someone does not want to obtain a college degree, butRead MoreAffordability Of Our Education : Is A College Education Worth The Cost?1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSylvia Ikharo Comp 1101 March 15, 2016 Affordability of our Education Every working American family knows how hard it is today to find affordable higher education. 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Question: Describe the various aspects of the independent pharmacy in an Adelaide hills town. Answer: Introduction This paper describes the various aspects of the independent pharmacy in an Adelaide hills town. The objective is to evaluate the depth analysis of the pharmacist-in-charge (PIC) in an independent pharmacy. It enables to determine the worlplace health sales, teams, leadership, marketing, motivation and creativity in an independent pharmarcy. Part A: Workplace health and safety: An independent pharmacy in an Aldelaide hills town is affected with the several aspects of the market condition. Different staff and customer have a different criteria to protect itself from the independent pharmacy. (Carter Slack 2010). These are the separated measurement of the staff and customer of an independent pharmacy that is described below: Staff workplace health and safety: The staff health and safety measurement is followed by these points such as understand the risk, reduce stress in workplace, avoid stopping, protect your back body part, stay sober and wear protective equipment in an independent pharmacy company in an Adelaide hills town. (Chisholm-Burns, Vaillancourt Shepherd 2012). An independent pharmacy staff should understand the potential risk in it and try to find out optimum benefit of it. Staff should reduce the work stress due to long hours, job insecurity, heavy workload and conflict with coworkers or bosses. An independent pharmacy staff should design erogonomically designed furniture to get workplace health and safety. Staff should protect your body from heavy equipment of the pharmacy in Australian regions. Alcohol and drugs are the reason for the workplace fatalities in an Adelaide hills town. An independent pharmacy staff should wear protective equipment in wokplace to protect itself. Australia is w ell developed country that protect their workplace health and safety in an independent pharmacy in Adelaide hills town. An independent pharmacy should provide staff friendly environment for the organization that protect from contingency situation in the market. (Waterson 2014). Customer workplace health and safety: The customer health and safety measure in an independent pharmacy is applied by such points stay in queue, reach at time and follow the rules. An independent pharmacy customer in Adeliade hills town should stay in queues, when he want medicine for their specific disease that would save the time and protect the health. Customer should reach at pharmancy store on time because each pharmacy has specific time to open and close in particular day. (Waterson 2014). Customer should follow the rules of an independent pharmacy in Adelaide hills town such as avoid medicine after expire date. It will protect customer health in the workplace, when they takes a treatment in the pharmacy that located in an Adelaide hills town. Pharmacy school is teaching student that how to protect health and safety in workplace of an independent pharmacy in an Adeliade hills town. They trained pharmacists, those are engaged in pharmaceuticals, production, storage and drugs sup pliers. Customer should aware with old stock of medicine. Different patients bought a different kinds of medicion from the independent pharmacy store in an Adelaide hills town. (Taylor Harding 2013). Teams: Team cohesiveness is a large instrumental that contains sections of brass, woodwind and string instruments. Each of these instruments can produce a pleasant and unique sound. The same principle applies in groups such as groups should have cohesion, truly effective and member work together to work something special. (Burns Grove 2010). These are the several way to raise the team cohesiveness in an independent pharmacy that is described below: Regular meeting: It is the significant way to pharmacy employees to conduct meeting regular basis to understand their issue that provide an appropriate solution to reduce the issue in pharmacist in an Adelaide hills town. An Adelaide hills town pharmacy has five assistance. So, they need to conduct meeting to share their opinion with each others that would raise the quality of the pharmacy in an Adelaide hills town area. Employees meeting in pharmacy can help to new staff members to get know everyone. (Kalsekar, Sheehan Peak 2007). Employees of the pharmacy can discuss regarding the various kinds of medicine that how to protect from expire date and how to distribute in the market before expire date. So, patients can get more benefit from fresh product of medicine. Regular meetting could share their experience about the pharmacy industry in an Adelaide hills town because it helps to judge the temperature criteria that will help to judge which medicines are an appropriate for producti on purpose in this area. Different medicine requires a different kinds of temperature. So, it would be beneficial to share their experience about the last job. (Chisholm-Burns, Vaillancourt Shepherd 2012). Host celebrations: It can make pharmacy more special and welcoming work environment. Pharmacy reached the specific goal. Then, it would be beneficial for the employee life events. The celebration is necessary for the staff of the pharmacy that raise the team cohesiveness. (Carter Slack 2010). Create environment to work together with all assistance of pharmacy that would be more enjoyful for the employees lifestyle. It creates a proper working environment where employees will produce high productivity as compared to other pharmacy organization. (Kalsekar, Sheehan Peak 2007). Group training: It provides training to pharmacy staff to raise the skills to handle the different kinds of medicine manufacturing in an Adelaide hills town. All five assistance of the pharmacy would get training to provide better output from the market. Pharmacy organization requires a different kinds of the training program that would be helpful to achieve its objective or goals in the current competitive market. (Taylor Harding 2013). Different department requires a different kinds of skills and abilities to handle the manufacturing process of the pharmacy organization. It is becoming an essential part in the current competitive market because it requires a lot of efforts to trained employees as per their requirements. (Chisholm-Burns, Vaillancourt Shepherd 2012). Leadership: As pharmacist-in-charge (PIC) in Alberton pharmacy and Aldgate pharmacy, we develop a charismatic leadership style to lead the staff through including five assistancts such as Luke. Charismatic style is the significant to lead the Alberton and Aldgate pharmacy staff in Australia. It provides base for innovation and creativity. We lead the employees through maintain employee support, provide a good example of the leadership, develops an improved work environment and offer growth opportunity in Alberton and Aldgate pharmacy near location of an Adelaide hills town. (Babar 2014). It has some limitation that interrupts the charismatic style such as risk of lack of clarity, lack of successors and negative perception the leader. In spite of the several limitation, it is developing to leads employees of the Alberton and Aldgate pharmacy. Luke as assistant of the pharmacy is also helpful to develop the charismatic style to achieve the pharmacy objective or goals. Charismatic leade r would motivate employees from his skills and abilities. Staffs feel that their opinion and concern matter under this types of leadership. Charismatic leadership style has trickle-down effect on the pharmacy, where employees will take management optimism. Trait of charismatic leader helps to achieve the pharmacy goals and lead to employees of the Alberton and Aldgate pharmacy. Luke is one of the best assistance of the five assistance of the pharmacy. Luke has skills and abilities to achieve the Alberton and Aldgate pharmacy objectives. (Taylor Harding 2013). Further, charismatic leadership style is the significant way to lead employees by the skills and abilities of the Luke assistance in the Alberton and Aldgate pharmacy. (Hattingh, Low Forrester 2013). Marketing: Marketing is the significant tools that would helps pharmacy to select and raise their sales in the market. These are the reason behind to choose an Adelaide hills town pharmacy that is described below: Location: An Adelaide hills town is located in South Australia that would be beneficial for the organization growth and development because it has a good location for environment perspective. It has cold environment that would be beneficial for the medicine production in the market as compared to others pharmacy. (Carter Slack 2010). Environment plays the significant factor in the pharmacy firm because medicine requires cold environment to protect from germs, It is located near the hills that have a lot of an ingredient. It is beneficial for the pharmacy to get a raw material from near location that would reduce the cost of it. A low cost medicines attracts the dealer of it. Those dealer buy medicines in the high quantity that would prefer to buy from an Adelaide hills town because it provides low price medicines in the current competitive market. (Babar 2014). Competition level: It is the significant reason behind to choose an Adelaide hills town. Some other pharmacy are raised the quality of the medicine that located at end of the town. Competition is the part of the every independent pharmacy. (Veatch Haddad 2010). Pharmacy industry requires competition that builds the brand image of it as compared to others person. Five assistances of the pharmacy will raise the competition because they have experience from different area that would be beneficial for the organization growth and development. (Grenville 2015). Varieties of medicines: An Adelaide hills town pharmacy provides varieties of the medicines that is the main reason behind to choose it as compared to other organization. Liquid, tablet, capsules, topical medicines and drop are the significant types of the medicines. Due to varieties, it can be able to satisfied the all kinds of customer in the market. (Taylor Harding 2013). Tested medicines: It provides the testing before the launch medicines in the market that helps to customers. It is tested in the laboratory that how much risk involved in the medicines when it would be used by customers. An Adelaide hills town pharmacy is following the testing procedure for the medicines that define the risk and benefit of it. (Babar 2014). Motivation: As pharmacist-in-charge (PIC), we would use Lucke goal-setting model to motivate Luke through determination of the benefit of the Lucke goal-setting model in the pharmacy. It presented the clear goals and appropriate feedback to motive Luck as assistant of the pharmacy. The Lucke model presented that difficult and specific goal is harder for employees to achieve organization objectives or goals. (Grenville 2015). It is the significant component of personal development of Luck skills and abilities. Luke bored to chat with the female in routine assistance of dispensary product. So, Luke felt little nervous about female assistance. But, it is the good way to motives Luck that Lucke goal-setting will help to encourage them and it will help that how to handle this situation for the motivation. (Burns Grove 2010). Creativity: Creativity is known as generate ideas, alternatives and possibility that useful in solving problems with others and entertaining ourselves in the market. (Grenville 2015). These are the significant way to raise the creative thinking skills in staff that is described below: Train staff in innovation techniques: Pharmacy should train the staff in innovation methods that would be beneficial for the organization growth and development. Pharmacy can conduct training programs in formal methods such as mind-mapping worthwhile, brainstorming and lateral thinking. (Grenville 2015). An Adelaide hills town pharmacy should provide training programs to aware their staff with their innovative methods medicines manufacturing in the firm. It is one of the significant ways to raise the creative thinking abilities in staffs. (Nimmo 2010). Be supportive: Pharmacy should provide full support to their staff because it raises the creative thinking in their mind. So, staff could suggest some innovative idea in the mind. Supportive behavior raise the staff skills and abilities in the pharmacy firm. It is the significant way to raise the staff innovation in the pharmacy in an Adelaide hills town. (Waterson 2014). Tolerate mistake: An Adelaide hills town pharmacy should tolerate mistakes, if they desire creativity thinking in their staffs. If the pharmacy firm will raise mistake in their staff constantly. Then, it would be negative for the pharmacy growth and development. Everyone human does mistake in their business life. So, if the pharmacy will focus on their mistake. Then, it would be negative for the organizations growth and development. (Nimmo 2010). Act on an idea: It is useful in pharmacy, if it is an actionable at the movement because it raise the employees moral and confidence in the pharmacy firms. The pharmacy should provide time to raise the idea worth action upon. If you fail, it doesnt mean that your firm will fail to get innovative idea. The pharmacy will support in the staff innovative idea. Then, it would be beneficial for the organization growth and development. (Waterson 2014). Make time for brainstorming: An Adelaide hills town pharmacy should give time for brainstorming because it raises an efficiency of the staff in the pharmacy. A group engaged in brainstorming in a specific session is more effective than the sum of its parts. Individual staff can fit with each other such as testing, refining ideas and exploring. (Veatch Haddad 2010). Reward creativity: Pharmacy should provide reward system who creates an innovation idea for it. It is the significant way to raise the staff skills and abilities through rewards system. The reward should be different as per staff creativity of the idea and how much useful in the pharmacy firm. (Grenville 2015). The pharmacy provides rewards system to raise the employees moral and confidence that they will get more benefit, if they will do work hard in the production, marketing and technical department of the organization. It is the significant way to raise the creative idea of employees. (Nimmo 2010). Provide the importance of creativity: It is another significant way to raise the employees skills and abilities in pharmacy. An Adelaide hills town pharmacy should provide the importance of staff creativity that would raise the employees moral and confidence to create more innovation idea. Employees desire moral support from the pharmacy top management regarding innovative ideas. Out of them, one would be useful for the pharmacy growth and development. (Nimmo 2010). Part B: In this part, we will provide rank for six skills that is good for pharmacist. It is the following way to provide rank skills part such as workplace health and safety because employee want job and health security before join any organization. So, we will give first rank to workplace helath and safety. We will provide second rank to team skills because employees have to work in a team to run their business in the competitive market. We will provide third rank to leadership skills because it helps to lead the team that how to achieve the organization objective or goals. (Lacher 2008). We will provide fourth rank to marketing because helps to sales to the organization product or service that is possible after the good leaderhip in organization. We will provide fifth rank to motivatation skills that helps to raise employees confidence and moral that is significant for the organization growth. Last, we will provide six rank to creativity skills that is possible after the motivation of the employees. If employees are motivated then they will try to create something new in the organization that would be beneficial for the organization growth and success. (Hattingh, Low Forrester 2013). Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be concluded that clear workplace health sales, teams, leadership, marketing, motivation and creativity as well as high ability to adopt the new approaches in an independent pharmacy in an Adelaide hills town helps to survive in the current competitive market. Alberton pharmacy and Aldgate are the fast growing pharmacy in an Adelaide hills town due to their unique features to leads the employees. The Luckes goal-setting model is helpful to motivate the Luck lifestyle in the pharmacy. References Babar, Z, 2014, Pharmaceutical Prices in the 21st Century, Springer, New York. 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